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IMMUNOLOGY LECTURES 01- Overview of the Immune System : Historical Perspective, Innate Immunity

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#IMMUNOLOGY #INNATEIMMUNITY #INNATE_IMMUNITY #NON_SPECIFIC_DEFENCE #KUBY_IMMUNOLOGY #BIOTECHNOL0GY #GATE #CSIR_NET_JRF
Nobel Prizes for immunologic research
Year Recipient Country Research
1901 Emil von Behring Germany Serum antitoxins
1905 Robert Koch Germany Cellular immunity to tuberculosis
1908 Elie Metchnikoff Russia Role of phagocytosis (Metchnikoff) and
Paul Ehrlich Germany antitoxins (Ehrlich) in immunity
1913 Charles Richet France Anaphylaxis
1919 Jules Border Belgium Complement-mediated bacteriolysis
1930 Karl Landsteiner United States Discovery of human blood groups
1951 Max Theiler South Africa Development of yellow fever vaccine
1957 Daniel Bovet Switzerland Antihistamines
1960 F. Macfarlane Burnet Australia Discovery of acquired immunological
Peter Medawar Great Britain tolerance
1972 Rodney R. Porter Great Britain Chemical structure of antibodies
Gerald M. Edelman United States
1977 Rosalyn R. Yalow United States Development of radioimmunoassay
1980 George Snell United States Major histocompatibility complex
Jean Daussct France
Baruj Benacerraf United States
1984 Cesar Milstein Great Britain Monoclonal antibody
Georges E. Köhler Germany
Niels K. Jerne Denmark Immune regulatory theories
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan Gene rearrangement in antibody
production
1991 E. Donnall Thomas United States Transplantation immunology
Joseph Murray United States
1996 Peter C. Doherty Australia Role of major histocompatibility complex
Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland in antigen recognition by by T cells

Innate Immunity.

Summary of nonspecific host defenses
Type Mechanism
Anatomic barriers
Skin Mechanical barrier retards entry of microbes.
Acidic environment (pH 3–5) retards growth of microbes.
Mucous membranes Normal flora compete with microbes for attachment sites and nutrients.
Mucus entraps foreign microorganisms.
Cilia propel microorganisms out of body.
Physiologic barriers
Temperature Normal body temperature inhibits growth of some pathogens.
Fever response inhibits growth of some pathogens.
Low pH Acidity of stomach contents kills most ingested microorganisms.
Chemical mediators Lysozyme cleaves bacterial cell wall.
Interferon induces antiviral state in uninfected cells.
Complement lyses microorganisms or facilitates phagocytosis.
Toll-like receptors recognize microbial molecules, signal cell to secrete immunostimulatory cytokines.
Collectins disrupt cell wall of pathogen.
Phagocytic/endocytic barriers Various cells internalize (endocytose) and break down foreign macromolecules.
Specialized cells (blood monocytes, neutrophils, tissue macrophages) internalize
(phagocytose), kill, and digest whole microorganisms.
Inflammatory barriers Tissue damage and infection induce leakage of vascular fluid, containing serum proteins with
antibacterial activity, and influx of phagocytic cells into the affected area.

31. Immunology 2 – Memory, T cells, & Autoimmunity

MIT 7.016 Introductory Biology, Fall 2018
Instructor: Adam Martin
View the complete course: https://ocw.mit.edu/7-016F18
YouTube Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63LmSVIVzy584-ZbjbJ-Y63

Continuing the topic of immunity, Professor Martin talks about how immune cells are able to see within a cell in order to address an infection in the body. He focuses on the processes of antigen presentation, isotype switching, and autoimmunity.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
More information at https://ocw.mit.edu/terms
More courses at https://ocw.mit.edu

Tumour immunology and immunotherapy

This animation created by Nature Reviews Cancer and Nature Reviews Immunology illustrates how tumour cells are sensed and destroyed by cells of the immune system and how tumours can evolve to evade immune-mediated elimination. Scientists are developing new immunotherapies that help the immune system to ‘fight back’ — the animation explains how these exciting new drugs work.

Nature has full responsibility for all editorial content, including Nature Video content. This content is editorially independent of sponsors.

See also: Nature Reviews Drug Discovery collection on Cancer immunotherapy: http://www.nature.com/nrd/collections/cancerimmuno

Further reading: Focus on Tumour immunology \u0026 immunotherapy: http://www.nature.com/reviews/focus/tumourimmunology/index.html

Sign up for the Nature Briefing: An essential round-up of science news, opinion and analysis, free in your inbox every weekday. https://go.nature.com/371OcVF

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